Welcome to How Do You Learn? Research Project. The project will outline my concerns about the use of rubrics for English, literature, and writing courses. I believe that rubrics are a necessary component for standardized testing but not for content-based writing. This section represents the proposed premise(s).
How Do You Learn? is a research project that addresses and challenges the need for rubrics in the English classroom. The use of margin comments was an effective strategy for tailoring feedback to a student's paper and for measuring mastery of concepts and knowledge.
However, with the growing concerns for grading load coupled with teaching responsibilities, the strategy and use of margin comments segued into the use of rubrics to assess writing ability.
The use of rubrics was motivated by the need to centralize and standardize the grading process of writing much like the practice is used in assessing standardized writing tests. It is my contention that rubrics do not measure mastery. Instead, rubrics measure success.
The use of scoring rubrics has its roots in the practice of scoring exams within the K-12 environment and general university admissions exams such as the SAT, ACT and graduate admissions exams such as the GRE, GMAT, and related. Teachers began "teaching to the test" and abandoned the teaching of content knowledge and understanding to meet the demands of policymakers and statutory regulations. Scores, and high scores, became the target and later became the norm. However, the higher the scores a school district received as a result of administering a standardized test, the less likely that school needed further funding.
Based on this assumption, therefore, there is a growing and consistent need to ensure that funding is always available for standardized tests. This means that even if students are not learning how to navigate standardized tests and are not truly gaining and advancing in content knowledge, as long as there is funding to ensure that teachers can continue to teach to the test, and schools can measure success, not progress, based upon results from the test, then there leaves little need to assess students’ abilities based upon using “mastery” as a target objective.
Why Margin Comments?
The instructor’s use of margin comments and annotations assessed the student’s understanding of the immediate subject matter, understanding of the assignment requirements, and understanding of core knowledge necessary to complete the course.
Rubrics do not measure mastery because they generalize the knowledge students have gained in a short time but not the knowledge they will need as explored within the immediate textbook. There is a difference between knowing, understanding, and applying the material and knowing enough of the material to apply some knowledge to pass a test and/or course.
Rubrics measure success and not grit.
This means that rubrics will measure whether a student is successful at navigating one or more sections of a standardized test. However, if you ask that same student who performed well on one or more sections about the information and if the student can explain his or her rationale for choosing an answer, the student would not be able to provide a rationale for his or her choice. The student would lack the ability to explain, critically think, and apply an understanding. Some students are simply great at rote memorization.
We have learned enough in our schooling to perform and not to know.
For example, there is a difference between a learning goal orientation and a performance goal orientation. With a learning goal orientation, pursuit of mastery is the objective. Learning and development is a lifelong enterprise. Lifespan theorists would suggest that development is lifelong, occurring in three broad domains: physical, cognitive, and emotional/social (Berk, 2014).
Development is both multidimensional and multidirectional. For multidimensional, development blends biological, psychological, and social forces (Berk, 2014). For multidirectional, “development is not limited to improved performance. Rather, at every period, it is a joint expression of growth and decline” (Berk, 2014, p. 9). Development is also influenced by multiple, interacting forces that are age-graded (predictable), history-graded (cohort), and nonnormative (irregular).
Because development is influenced by multiple factors, it is difficult to assess ability using one type of measure. With history-graded, cohort is defined as the tendency to be alike and different at the same time and may be central to a historical era.
Examples include events occurring during wars, epidemics, technology advancement, and cultural values. The baby boomer generation is one such term that describes people born between 1946 and 1964, post-World War II, when birth rates soared. “These history-graded influences explain why people born around the same time—called a cohort—tend to be alike in ways that set them apart from people born at other times” (Berk, 2014, p. 11). People from this period may be assessed using the same grading criteria and assessment tools. We look at them from the general term of “baby boomer” to form our understanding of learning, thinking, patterns of behaviors, and contribution to society.
However, there is genuinely something wrong with assessing people the same, based upon a cohort understanding of assessment. This is especially significant considering that students and people in general have different learning styles. People may be auditory learners, visual learners, and/or kinesthetic learners. People learn differently.
But our academic environments do not measure learners as learning differently. Our academic environment measures students’ abilities to learn and catch up to criteria that does not equally teach them how to learn. In other words, the academic environment operates with these two conflicting assumptions about standardized testing:
The students get a conflicting message about learning.
Margin comments target a gap in a student’s understanding about a concept, core knowledge, and application of that concept in writing. Margin comments assess the student’s ability or inability to apply that knowledge. Margin comments provide feedback to the student to correct misunderstanding. The next paper or assignment should reflect progress in overcoming that misunderstanding and readiness to assume responsibility for another concept.
It is the same strategy that we use in math.
What We Adopt
With a performance goal orientation, belief in ability is fixed. An individual focuses on failure as weakness and stresses the importance of short-term results (Attenweiler & Moore, 2006). Our school and college systems are focusing students to be great performers but not great learners.
The use of a rubric, thus, is an example of adopting a performance goal orientation versus a learning goal orientation. We do not care to learn anymore. We care more about performance, hitting target numbers, and passing students through the system who will struggle with contributing to their communities and to their fields in the workplace.
Dweck (2014) references an example of employers struggling with employees who cannot get through the day without an award. The employees need encouraging to do their jobs. They need the constant validation that suggests that they are great in order to meet the demands of work. It is the use of rubrics and scoring mechanisms in the writing classroom that hinders the learning process.
Students are more concerned with the grade that they receive and less concerned with the knowledge they need to move and advance forward. They can pass a class but passing does not necessarily mean that they understand what they have read or written.
A common example I use in the classroom in discussing issues with mastery is we learned grammar in school enough to pass a test, but if I asked you what a modifier means or why a verb is in the past tense for a given sentence, you would not be able to explain it. Here are further two conflicting views:
You cannot skim concepts through the completion of coursework. But our academic environments are suggesting to students that skimming is more advantageous than taking the time to learn the material. They are suggesting that a fixed mindset about learning, i.e., knowing enough to pass, is more important than pursuing a growth mindset about learning, i.e., valuing criticism and making improvement towards mastery.
It is for these reasons that I challenge the use of rubrics to standardize writing in the academic environment because I do not believe that rubrics measure mastery. Instead, rubrics measure success. Success is temporary. It is based upon the belief of managing momentary impulses and not achieving educational attainment (Duckworth & Gross, 2014).
If learning is lifelong, then the use of rubrics will not suffice as a long-term practice to assess mastery. However, if we continue to use rubrics solely to measure writing ability and measure progress in the academic environment, then we can expect to abandon mastery to maintain a fixed mindset about learning.
It is with this project that I hope to gain insight into how students learn as a strategy for understanding my role in teaching, my understanding of the students’ abilities, and my assumptions about how students learn.
The project will result in the development of a measure/survey, the possible development of a rubric that measures mastery and not merely success, and the development of a book and accompanying workbook.
This section will outline preliminary assumptions, research, and working bibliography.
Attenweiler, W. J., & Moore, D. (2006). Goal orientations: Two, three, or more factors? Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66 (2), 342-352. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.1015.3418&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Berk, L. E. (2014). Development through the lifespan. Boston: Pearson.
Duckworth, A., & Gross, J. J. (2014). Self-control and grit: Related but separable determinants of success. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23 (5), 319-325. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4737958/
Dweck, C. “Changing Our Mindset Chart.” Visual/Graph/PDF File, 8 Oct. 2015. https://i.pinimg.com/originals/ee/4b/d9/ee4bd915191043797bc54af6920504c1.jpg. Accessed 10 Jun. 2018.
Dweck, Carol. “Developing a Growth Mindset” by Carol Dweck. Stanford Alumni online video clip. YouTube. YouTube, 9 Oct. 2014. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hiiEeMN7vbQ&t=131s. Accessed 23 June 2019.
Last Rev. 8/22/2019
Shouldn’t You Know This By Now? is a statement epitomizing the frustration English and writing instructors voice while grading student papers. We look at a student’s third or fourth paper or third or fourth writing response, and we assess that the student either has not learned anything or the student is refusing to learn anything.
We have discussed A, B, C principles of Composition leading up to the third or fourth paper, and we continue to see the same errors in thinking or gaps in understanding that we saw at the beginning of the semester.
These are questions that keep me up at night regarding students: their papers, their understanding, and how to direct their abilities with appropriate feedback. Checkmarks do not work for students who are required to become increasingly conscientious as fields and disciplines become increasingly specialized. Graduates might find out that they are not competitive in the marketplace because they do not have the requisite specialized skills.
Long gone are the days when a student could major simply in business administration and it covered everything. Today, the business discipline has specializations in investing, non-profit management, finance, accounting, international business, and dual degrees with public policy, the law, social work, and related. This means that students must pay attention to how and what they are planning.
Paying attention begins in the classroom. It begins with attending to the concepts and principles of writing since it is judged heavier than merely verbal expression. Even the best orator must still be able to demonstrate their understanding in writing. The person must be able to demonstrate that he or she has mastered an understanding about the topic and that in written form, it creates a teachable, instructive document.
Mastery of the subject matter is always required.
Shouldn’t You Know This By Now? does not fully suggest that Composition students will become masters by the end of the course. However, within the time span of a 15-week semester, the same problem the student had at the beginning of the semester with thesis, topic sentence, and use of supporting evidence should not be the same problem the student has at the end of the course.
Yes, English majors, students of writing, and non-English majors should write 95% of the course. This is a given. But the other 5% should reflect quizzes and tests not only just on readings, but also on composition principles and MLA/APA.
The following explores my thinking on Shouldn’t You Know This By Now?
One of the issues I believe English instructors see often is the struggle with students to create a thesis statement. Students may create a focused introduction paragraph but omit the standard thesis statement which outlines their purpose for writing. Instructors often voice “Shouldn’t you know this by now?” as they are grading a student’s paper. This question usually comes at a point in the semester when students have written a few papers. If the classroom is Composition I, then there is some flexibility and patience with the student’s learning.
However, even in Composition I, the student should not get to the third or fourth essay and still struggle with creating a thesis statement, especially when the instructor has provided a lecture on the topic and has used a sample thesis statement to further understanding of the concept. This is also especially important when the student has practiced writing a thesis statement through group exercises and the textbook provides sample thesis statements.
In other words, there is guidance. The student is not merely left alone to his or her own devices.
The rest of the composition principles of topic development using topic sentences, supporting evidence, and argument development are all-encompassing and require just as much consideration as the thesis statement.
While the thesis statement frames how the topic will be explored, the supporting evidence will either validate or invalidate the thesis statement. This means that a student must know their own argument and determine whether supporting evidence will help to support their own argument.
Use of a citation referencing style such as MLA or APA is required for academic writing. Using supporting evidence requires that students quote appropriately. Words that do not originate with the student must be properly cited. Oftentimes, however, I will get students who struggle with integrating evidence.
They believe that quotes and use of supporting evidence is optional. The argument that they are putting forth is one that might be based in their prior learning about using evidence. In fact, most students come from an academic background where they often write in narrative form. They do not create a developed argument, nor do they use evidence to build that argument.
Therefore, this is one of the hurdles I get students over in a college-level English class. I have had one or more students drop the class because they were offended at the idea of using supporting evidence. They believed that their words were necessary, alone.
English academic writing is a training exercise that requires practice with integrating evidence.
These are some of the preliminary deductions I have been considering to explain why students either do not understand and apply basic composition principles or refuse to apply their understanding of basic composition principles. In a college-level environment, instructors always provide resources or link to extended resources, which is also required reading.
Reviewing the information is part of the requirements of the course, but students will ignore the information as being optional. Even in my classes, I have provided Power Point lectures, in-class group activities, and evaluation checklist sheets to guide their submissions, and I will still get students who do not use the sheet!
Again, students’ refusal to review all sources connected to the course may be a strategy required at the high school level or required from a previous college instructor. I definitely get students in Composition II who may still struggle with thesis statements and using MLA. To me, that is strange.
Here are a few deductions:
I think that these conclusions may have some credence, but I think it is likely that the last deduction may shed further light into the problem of using rubrics solely to assess a content-based composition essay.
A holistic rubric with a rating system would work well for a standardized essay exam, but it may fail to teach the student when it comes to a content-based essay where the student has had exposure to the topic and to the materials for the topic. A student might rationally assess an “80” as passing but fail to assess for areas where the student is weak.
What Is Missing
What is missing from English instruction of composition principles is the technical aspect of task management and analysis. For example, we throw around thesis statement, topic sentence, supporting evidence, and MLA as if students can just pick up these concepts without some practical intervention.
In math, we learn how to work the problem. We learn how to take a problem step by step. We work out the problem until we get to its end. Then we say that the fraction cannot be reduced any further. We remember the practice of sitting down and working our way to the end of the problem and achieving the answer.
In English, we have no such practice. Students receive a lecture on a topic and then are expected to read the textbook for understanding of composition principles. Then students are further expected to apply that broken understanding to writing. They receive feedback on their submissions and responses that negatively impact their understanding of what Composition is supposed to do for the student. A grade of “A” is no more explained than a grade of “B,” a grade of “C,” or a grade of “D.” A teacher who places an “F” on the student’s paper expects the student to understand what the “F” means. The rubric further outlines the “F” but without explanation.
Students leave Composition without further direction.
What Is Needed
Composition instructors must design activities that increase repetition of creating thesis statements, studying a paragraph to determine a possible topic sentence, and integrating evidence using MLA or APA citation principles.
In the same manner that we learned our initial grammar concepts of alphabetizing, spelling, conjugating, and writing sentences, and the fact that we remember these concepts today, we need to adapt this practice to Composition. I do not mean that we need to assess Composition in a rudimentary way. What I mean is that we need to create tasks that help students remember through consistent practice.
We should not merely assume that students will carry over writing and developing a thesis statement to subsequent essays. We should create tasks and tests that address this gap in learning. For example, an MLA test item might provide three samples of formatted entries and ask the student to choose the answer that reflects the true way to cite the source whether in-text or on the Works Cited page.
We need both writing and some rote memorization in English to measure progress. Students should never support the belief that writing a thesis statement is optional. Writing in English is not an optional enterprise. Using both strategies will help to provide a sound rationale for rubrics, especially when rubrics reference also grammar and application of MLA to the writing assignment.
Students should still leave Composition remembering the concepts and principles of Composition, even if English is not their major.
What A Rubric Should Reference
Given this idea of incorporating both composition principles and rote memorization of bringing knowledge forward about thesis statements, framing the topic with supporting evidence and topic development, and substantiating evidence with MLA or APA, a rubric should reference whether use of MLA is accurate and appropriate.
The most important takeaway from understanding Shouldn’t You Know This By Now? is the notion that students should move knowledge forward.
Students should not believe that using MLA is optional per essay. Students should not believe that creating a thesis statement is optional. Students should not be confused about what a thesis statement is and looks like within a paper.
In many ways, the college English instructor may be expected to assess the student’s ability using task analysis and applying the business concepts of SWOT: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. This is something that we need to consider as we assess student writing.
This is something I will consider when I think about the creation and development of a rubric that addresses the student’s writing from the point of view of applying composition principles appropriately, applying topic development, and applying knowledge about MLA and/or APA citation referencing style.
I am not oblivious to the idea that rubrics are here to stay. No one in the academic industry, professional organization, and school/college environments will listen to me whine about using rubrics. Rubrics are here to stay. They are not going in anywhere.
However, I believe that use of rubrics must be appropriate to English, writing, and literature given the idea that students must know and demonstrate an understanding of key concepts and principles, consistently, in the course and in the workforce.
Therefore, SWOT may be the way forward to determine if rubrics truly measure progress, which is long-term, and not only process, which is momentary. Progress has greater implications for grit and developing a growth mindset. Process has implications for self-control and developing a fixed mindset.
Last rev. 8/22/2019
Journal Note: 1/19/2020 for Shouldn't You Know This By Now?
In a recent comment I made on a Facebook Group called #TeacherProblems, the originator of the post asked this question: I am in the process of creating a digital and physical portfolio. What do you have in your portfolio? (Tony Lezama, New Member, 1/19/2020), The link is below.
Considering Future Plans
Many commenters offered advice on items to put into the portfolio. Then I added a comment about including a teaching philosophy statement because it was something I had to create for a job application. I noted the patience needed to create the statement and how much time it would take to synthesize all ideas from instruction, activities, and student learning. It takes patience to create that statement. I also provided a link to the Cornell site that I used to help me create my own teaching philosophy statement.
In the productive commenting, going back and forth regarding what to include in a teaching philosophy statement, I noted in a further response to the originator of the post that thinking about future plans for the student and teaching instruction must consider the learning objectives for the students.
I noted in my comment that considering the district's guidelines, the institution's policies, and the discipline itself and matching it with learning objectives in general should help the teacher consider where he or she thinks the students' should be by the end of the course.
I noted that a student at the beginning of the semester should look different by the end of the semester. A student should not think that use of MLA parenthetical documentation is an optional exercise. Students need to understand that they must carry forward those MLA principles throughout college.
This is what I posted in the FB Group in response to Lezama (without revision):
Regina Y. Favors Tony Lezama Well sometimes if you think about the learning objectives for the district, institution, and discipline, this should help you to come up with the future plans. Where do you see the student of this subject by next grade, at the high school level, and prior to college transfer? What's the skill level you want to see? I teach college and what I see at the college level is students unaware of MLA. Some think it is optional, and others think that MLA is semester-based. "I did all I needed to do for this class." But all citation standards . . . you must take with you all throughout college. Just think about the gaps you see in your class. "Why don't they know this by now?" That could turn into a goal, match it with a learning objective, then you might have a future plan to work with. Hope this helps.
Lezama received the information and then I further posted this (without revision):
Regina Y. Favors Tony Lezama It took me a bit of a time to get it, but I'm still working at this. My teaching journal helps me a lot, trying to figure out what has been my learning process as a teacher, match it with what I think/know the students are learning, and then further what the student should look like by the time he or she leaves my class. A student at the beginning of the semester should look different, in a good way, by the end of the semester. I'm finding out that we need to focus on their skill development in addition to their learning capacity. Thank you for the conversation. This is giving me some ideas!!!!!
End of conversation.
What I Learned
What I learned from this exchange is indicated in the last post here: We need to focus on skill development in addition to (building) learning capacity.
Each discipline is different, but disciplines in the social sciences and natural sciences focus on both skill development and learning capacity.
However, in the Arts and Humanities, there is less focus on skill development and/or rote memorization and more focus on reading and building learning capacity for the English topic, literary genre, etc.
I cannot remember much of what I learned going through the English major from bachelor's to master's degree. There was a lot of reading and writing, but if I had to teach it or try to explain the concepts to another person, right out of college, I would struggle.
I had to teach myself English after graduating from the major, and even as an English college instructor, I have to go back and remember the concepts I have learned, but this requires revisiting a textbook.
Practice does make perfect: The more time you spend with a subject the more you will learn and remember. It might take many years to perfect the knowledge retention, but I also believe that certain English and writing-based concepts should just come organically without always returning to the textbook, even though the textbook is still a useful instrument for teaching.
If I ask a student what a topic sentence means, the student should be able to reflect (in understanding) and to do (in skill development) the following:
1. Define topic sentence as a term.
2. Identify a topic sentence in a sample paragraph.
3. Write a sample topic sentence for a sample paragraph.
4. Revise a topic sentence if it no longer works for a sample paragraph.
These four steps are not explored within the composition classroom.
Why Are We Using a Rubric?
This means that we need to ask the question: What use is the rubric if it is not gauging skill development?
This requires a more obvious question: Why are we as English teachers not building skill development in the composition classroom?
The second question needs further consideration and research going forward under Shouldn't They Know This By Now?
For now, I would like to focus on the question I posed: If I ask a student what a topic sentence means . . .?
Ask and means are two different things. To ask someone something and what it means is different from to tell the student to demonstrate "topic sentence" in a definition, in a sample paragraph, in a written sentence, and in a revised sentence. Therefore, determining skill development should consider the type of verb and additional phrasing:
1. Define topic sentence as a term.
2. Identify a topic sentence in the following sample paragraph.
3. Write a sample topic sentence for the sample paragraph provided.
4. Revise the topic sentence you wrote for a previous paragraph to support your new thesis.
5. Choose the most appropriate topic sentence for the paragraph provided.
These "directions" would apply to different assignments and/or contexts/activities, or these directions could work within a general knowledge test. But there must be practice with using these directions and instructing students in the way of understanding these directions as they help to build and reinforce skill development.
These directions should transition into demonstrable expected outcomes.
Here are some conclusions I drew from discussing the differences between skill development and learning capacity in the Facebook group and what I am considering, resulting from this journal process.
Conclusion: I think use of standardized testing rubrics in the composition classroom is (was) putting the cart before the horse.
I also think the more we create the right language for using rubrics and testing with them in the composition context that standardized testing rubrics might work in/for the composition classroom and as an entrance composition testing item.
Right now, these subjects need further research and content development.
I do not know where to start, yet, but I think the teaching journal I have been keeping on minimal guidance has been helpful for understanding why students are struggling with retaining what they have learned, even if this might not be their objective.
Some students think that learning is only necessary in their major. Students, whose major is not English, think English is unnecessary. Therefore, they do not always accept the English major or writing as a challenge; instead, they feel that English (principles and concepts of) is just something that they have to pass and not carry forward into other classes. Even some English majors struggle to carry forward English concepts to further classes and within the major.
Conclusion: The English major is not standardized enough to use a standards-based rubric typically used for standardized tests.
Non-English and English students, alike, might not find English useful enough, academically and personally for themselves, because we have not made it central to their everyday living, academically, professionally, and personally.
I wonder how useful the following titles might be for test-takers qualifying to get into a core-based English class. This might standardized the process for all colleges and institutions and make it much easier to utilize a writing rubric for the test.
Students for Whom English is Not Their Major: SWEN
Students for Whom English is Their Major: SWEM
The goal of these titles would be to gauge skill development and learning capacity.
The development of these titles is/might be in the same vein as the following types of tests:
1. ESL (English as a Second Language),
2. EFL (English as a Foreign Language),
3. TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language),
4. TOEIC (Test of English for International Communication), and
5. TELL (Test for English Language Learners).
The last test is New York-based for secondary education, but I noticed how the results are reported based on mastery. It is possible to use the same language for the above possible titles. the information below is both directly quoted and paraphrased and does not include the full representation indicated on the website.
1. Commanding: Students function fluently in listening, reading, writing, and speaking.
2. Expanding: Students are able to use skills at a higher level than intermediate students.
3. Transitioning: Students have better English skills than students at the basic level.
4. Emerging: Students needs some support and structure to improve their academic language skills.
5. Entering: Students are at the beginning level in the four skill areas.
In considering these reporting results, how might they apply to what I'm considering for testing skill development learning capacity in composition?
Conclusion: I need a research question. I also need to study the invention of the English language learning tests.
I need to create a survey instrument. This might help me to decide on a research question(s).
I also need to study the scholarship on English language learning and English as a second language.
I may need to study federal and state-based standardized testing guidelines, policy, and expected outcomes.
The most important aspect of this study must entail understanding accreditation standards surrounding English, composition, rhetoric and writing, and the Humanities.
Conclusion: Lastly, consideration of these ideas must include cognitive load theory, part of the human cognitive architecture, concepts discussed within the journal article.
The authors discuss short-term, working memory, and long-term memory. Short-term memory is limited, indicative of learning facts and performing rote memorization.
Long-term memory reflects the ability to percieve, think, and resolve problems. Long-term memory is guided by structures known as schemas that help us to treat multiple elements as one single element.
Here is a lengthy quote that further explains the differences:
"Schemas are acquired over a lifetime of learning, and may have other schemas contained within themselves. The difference between an expert and a novice is that a novice hasn’t acquired the schemas of an expert. Learning requires a change in the schematic structures of long term memory and is demonstrated by performance that progresses from clumsy, error-prone, slow and difficult to smooth and effortless.
"The change in performance occurs because as the learner becomes increasingly familiar with the material, the cognitive characteristics associated with the material are altered so that it can be handled more efficiently by working memory.
"From an instructional perspective, information contained in instructional material must first be processed by working memory. For schema acquisition to occur, instruction should be designed to reduce working memory load. Cognitive load theory is concerned with techniques for reducing working memory load in order to facilitate the changes in long term memory associated with schema acquisition" (Sweller; InstructionalDesign.org, n.d.).
The goal of instruction, thus, is to change long-term memory (Kirschner, Sweller, & Clark, 2006).
This whole project is a work in progress.
Link from FB Group: (https://www.facebook.com/groups/RLteacherproblems/620160378785597/?comment_id=620174165450885&reply_comment_id=620178172117151¬if_id=1579482277614934¬if_t=group_comment_mention)
Link for Cornell: Teaching Philosophy Statement:
Link: Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work (Journal Article)
This is a subscription-based document. The link is here, but the file for download is also available below.
Link: NYC Department of Education, Tests for English Language Learners
Link: Cognitive Load Theory (John Sweller)